Website Creation & Hosting

Another Web Post

Lincoln Memorial statue by Daniel Chester French

There are many variations of passages of Lorem Ipsum available, but the majority have suffered alteration in some form, by injected humour, or randomised words which don’t look even slightly believable. If you are going to use a passage of Lorem Ipsum, you need to be sure there isn’t anything embarrassing hidden in the middle of text. All the Lorem Ipsum generators on the Internet tend to repeat predefined chunks as necessary, making this the first true generator on the Internet. It uses a dictionary of over 200 Latin words, combined with a handful of model sentence structures, to generate Lorem Ipsum which looks reasonable. The generated Lorem Ipsum is therefore always free from repetition, injected humour, or non-characteristic words etc.

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New Website Post

Contrary to popular belief, Lorem Ipsum is not simply random text. It has roots in a piece of classical Latin literature from 45 BC, making it over 2000 years old. Richard McClintock, a Latin professor at Hampden-Sydney College in Virginia, looked up one of the more obscure Latin words, consectetur, from a Lorem Ipsum passage, and going through the cites of the word in classical literature, discovered the undoubtable source. Lorem Ipsum comes from sections 1.10.32 and 1.10.33 of “de Finibus Bonorum et Malorum” (The Extremes of Good and Evil) by Cicero, written in 45 BC. This book is a treatise on the theory of ethics, very popular during the Renaissance. The first line of Lorem Ipsum, “Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet..”, comes from a line in section 1.10.32.

The standard chunk of Lorem Ipsum used since the 1500s is reproduced below for those interested. Sections 1.10.32 and 1.10.33 from “de Finibus Bonorum et Malorum” by Cicero are also reproduced in their exact original form, accompanied by English versions from the 1914 translation by H. Rackham.

Website Creation & Hosting

Start Up a U/X Café at Your Library

This is a guest post by Kati Polodna, Web Systems Assistant at Arapahoe Libraries.

Feel unsure of what your patrons want when they visit your library website? Is traditional patron feedback not enough to give you what you need to make your library’s website both amazing and accessible? It’s time to think outside the box and start a U/X Café!

What is a U/X Café?

Arapahoe Libraries web team visited library branches with a laptop, a series of questions or a short task, and an incentive, to speak to patrons for no more than ten minutes, to gather website feedback. Why a café? It’s friendly—and we offered free coffee!

Know Thyself

Ask yourself:

  • What website problems do we need to solve?
  • What do I want to improve on the website?
  • Why do I want to improve the website?
  • Would [that change] benefit the patron?
  • How many changes should I make at once?
  • How much of the website is customizable?

Know Thy Audience

Ask yourself:

  • What kind of users use your website? We broke down our users into two categories.
    • User1: Browsers/Discoverers
      • Browsers/Discoverers like to visit the website, aren’t limited by time, like to browse and discover
    • User2: Direct Users
      • These users know exactly what they want and expect it to be where they think it should be and they know how to get what they want, may also be short on time
  • How can you meet the needs of both Browsers and Direct Users?
    • Can you place information in multiple places, like side menus, top menus, footers and headers?
    • Look at other popular websites for inspiration to see how other libraries and companies solved your issue
      • Where do you log in?
      • Where is the search bar?
      • Where do you look for help, hours, locations and more?
  • What are peak times at my library? (That’s so you can interview the most patrons!)
    • What we learned: two peak times, after story times and late afternoon/after school but before dinner
    • Consider having a U/X café after a popular program, but not too late in the day because patrons want to go home

Homework Time

First, it’s important to remember that you are not your user. You know too much about the website. You are too involved. This is not “designer” experience. This is “user” experience. So think about your audience.These questions can help you get a baseline for your users.

  • Do your users primarily use a desktop or mobile?
  • How often do patrons use your website?
  • What do patrons primarily use the website for?
  • What do patrons wish they could find easily?
  • And, something to ask yourself, who do you not see using the website, and why?

Which of these two processes sounds like you?

  • Are you adding a new webpage, library service or something else to the website? Are you renaming a service or something similar?
  • Is it just time for a refresh?
    • Not sure where to start? Review your analytics and determine if you can make website improvements based off analytics.
      • Do you have a lot of bounces? Can you figure out why and what you can do to improve that?
      • What are your popular pages? Do you want to revamp those pages first?
      • What are your least popular pages? Do you want those pages to be more popular?
      • Are there pages you expected to be popular that aren’t? Why is that? And what can you do to drive traffic?

Mini Case Study

Arapahoe Libraries wanted to update our online resources;it was time to both clean up and simplify patrons’ access to nearly 100 databases. First, we needed identify the problem or what you would like to improve: too many databases could overwhelm patrons. Next, we reviewed how our online resources currently look, what issues we saw, and what we thought we could change to improve our patrons’ online resources experience. During our hard look, we brainstormed ideas and we also worked to avoid jargon. For example, what does “online resource” mean versus a “database”? What does the term “research” imply if you’re in a public library versus an academic library?

Start small. We thought about where one database could go, like the popular Consumer Reports database. Could it live under a business category, a consumer category or something else? What are common themes between online resources? What are broad categories multiple databases can fit under? Create a few mock ups either on paper or in your sandbox.

Show your mock ups to involved parties, and who are those involved parties? Are there super user librarians who can give you honest feedback? What about floor staff who spend time working with patrons and may have insights you hadn’t considered? Take a step back for a few days and comeback to it with fresh eyes. Which mock ups were the most popular and/or intuitive? After that, it’s almost time to show your mock ups to patrons.

Build the Right Questions

Now that you have mock ups, create a specific task or tasks for patrons to complete that reflect the end goal of your project. Build that task into a scenario and keep it short, ten minutes or less. Here are two examples.  

  1. If you wanted to find an eBook to download from an app called OverDrive, under what online resource category would you browse?
  2. Let’s say you want to purchase a new vacuum cleaner. You’ve heard the library has product reviews. Where you would find that information?

Which scenario will give you unbiased information from your patron? Example 2. When writing a scenario, don’t want to give away any information that could sway the patron. In the first example, which uses words like “app” and “online resource,” you’ve directed the patron how to navigate. That doesn’t help you learn how a patron thinks through a question. The second example avoids words like Consumer Reports, database or online resource. While the second example is more vague, it forces the patron to think through where they might start looking for information even if they don’t have all the information. That helps you understand how patrons browse your website.

However, if you are trying to improve a specific task, like asking patrons how they would find hoopla, you may want to use a direct question. That question would appeal to your users who are direct when going to your website, but think about how that question would affect users who tend to browse. You could phrase the question two ways: Where would you find hoopla? and A friend told you that the library has movies you can download. How do you find them?

It’s two ways of asking the same question. You may find that patrons don’t know what hoopla is. A patron may go about the task in a completely unexpected way that you hadn’t considered. Or you may find that patrons consistently answer the same. That’s all helpful information for you to take back and digest and then use to improve your user’s experience.

Talking Time

How do you get patrons to participate? Ask! It’s going to be weird. It’s going to be hard. And you’re going to get rejected. That’s okay. Eventually, someone will participate. Try to offer an incentive, like free coffee or a stylus pen, something that’s useful and doesn’t feel or look cheap.Keep asking. Be upbeat and friendly, but not too insistent. Wear your name tag. Don’t take any negative feedback personally. Patrons don’t know you and they don’t know how much of the website you created.

Set Up

  • Write down your questions in a script format.
  • Bring a colleague with you: one to ask the questions and one to take notes.
  • Bring a laptop with a mouse. Not all patrons are comfortable using a trackpad.
  • Notice what patrons spend the most time doing,like hovering over menus or what links they click as they go along.
  • Once the patron is done, take time to discuss your observations and write down those observations before moving on to the next patron.

Ask patrons to talk aloud as they go. Tell them that you aren’t judging them. You are testing the site, not the patron and not their abilities. If a patron has trouble with the tasks, that means there’s a problem with the website, not them, and it’s going to help you fix problems and build abetter website. If patrons ask questions while completing tasks, do not answer them. Let the patron work through the process or task themselves. And if they don’t complete the task, tell that it’s okay and move on.

At the end of the task, ask the patrons the following:

  • What did you expect to do/find?
  • What did you find confusing?

Then you can ask specific questions about their answers,such as “What about [X] makes you associate with [X] words?” An example: We asked patrons where they would register for a storytime. Some patrons navigated to the Services tab and some navigated to the Events tab. Have them explain their reasoning behind their choices. And, don’t forget to tell patrons the answer at the end if they were stumped or confused—it’s nice!

Mini Case Study

We wanted to refresh our Makerspace page from a page to a“hub” of information. Something we hadn’t considered until user testing was how patrons hear the word “Makerspace.” Patrons, who were unfamiliar with the Makerspace, heard it as “Makers Space” or “Maker Space.” Since some patrons were unfamiliar with the term, they searched for it, and because they didn’t know how to spell it, they had an even more difficult time finding the page. Patrons also didn’t notice that the search bar defaults to a catalog search,not a website search. Pay attention to repetitive behaviors too—if a patron doesn’t know where to start looking, do they spend time browsing the header/footer/menus or do they default to searching for their answer? What can you learn from those repetitive behaviors? What can you do to improve your patrons’ experience?

Next Steps

Make small changes based off your user testing. Share it again with your stakeholders and super users. Take out what you learned into the branches. Make your changes based off user testing, but keep the “old” method in place for a set time period. Share those changes with staff.

Final Thoughts

Be flexible. Be patient. Be open to hearing feedback. Keep trying. And have fun!

Website Creation & Hosting

Essential Website UX to Improve Relevance, Value and Accessibility

This is a guest post by Tiffany Clendenin, Operations Manager at Broomfield Library.

On a recent UX panel at CALCON, I presented on website content changes that can help support our public library obligation to offer service to all patrons in a user-centered and responsive way. The following details a few aspects that can be easily adopted to create a scalable UX practice.

As a UX team of one, I took the approach of putting together a content engagement analysis of our website and used web analytics tools to determine behavior flow, time spent and bounce rate of users on our pages. This collected data gave me a snapshot as to whether or not our content was locatable and understood in any given time period. Looking only at our core user actions, I was able to determine that we needed to improve the clarity and findability of our content to better prove its value to users in the short amount of time they are on the page. You might have heard of the the 59 second rule, the average amount of time a user will remain on a web page before clicking away, but UX research actually show it’s even less than that: 10-20 seconds! That is a short amount of time to convey the value of the content and connect the user with their intended goal.

With the user in mind I developed a content strategy that I would use to reshape our content and to articulate the components of good usability that will help us to meet user expectations. Two elements of content strategy (as outlined by Kristina Halvorson in her book Content Strategy for the Web) that became a focus for me were substance and structure. With a focus on just these two elements, I found several areas needing improvement:

  • Substance (topics, tone, style, what message we need to communicate). Issues were:
    • Excessive information – too much to read on any one page
    • Page load times – too many images
  • Structure (how we prioritize and break up the content into building blocks). Issues were:
    • Navigation too complex
    • Not highlighting main actions we want visitors to see

Creating a logical flow with the fewest amount of clicks

The next step was to minimize/refine/prioritize the content and then map it to ensure it has a logical flow with the fewest amount of clicks. Mapping the content to improve the navigation was a quick and easy process of the most logical choices based on the whole, as opposed to a labyrinth of choices added over the years. Refining the wording and amount of description on our pages was mildly challenging but also allowed for the most dynamic changes in the page appeal. Having images is important (70{66eaadba41c14e7e553ffe7a4ee73fbae213b19704eda0514b3dd79e37e4c0c5} visual – 30{66eaadba41c14e7e553ffe7a4ee73fbae213b19704eda0514b3dd79e37e4c0c5} content) but having too many is also chaotic to the flow of the page. In places where I needed to remove images but still had text content, I focused on having a good text hierarchy to ensure that it is clean and easy to read.

Peter Morville’s User Experience Honeycomb, from “User Experience Design,” Semantic Studios (2004).

These targeted changes improved the clarity and findability of our web content in an immediate and visible way (the usage data has shown). UX pioneer Peter Morville established the seven facets of user experience which are a great guide when considering page content. Is it Usable, Useful, Desirable, Findable, Accessible and Credible? I found that these small changes were impactful to move our content more in the direction of this goal.

Equally important as the substance and structure, were the accessibility challenges in our content that would prevent access and understanding for certain users. Web standards for accessibility such as having alt text for images and descriptive text for links were common mistakes in our content (and easy to fix). Empathy building is an important concept in UX and there are web tools to simulate issues such as color blindness or tools for highlighting issues in our HTML code that would present a problem for screen readers.

The process described above took about 6 months to complete but the strategy is now a continuous process applied not only to the library’s website content, but also to other digital services and access points. Perhaps most importantly, this assessment helped to create a culture of usability in the library where we are not just pushing out information to users but instead trying to understand our users’ needs and behaviors so that their interaction with the content is a useful, and therefore a worthwhile experience.

Website Creation & Hosting

Google Analytics Basics: Users, Sessions & Pageviews

If you work with websites at all, you have probably seen reports from Google Analytics detailing how your site, or some part of your site, is performing in terms of users, sessions and pageviews. Maybe you even produce such reports for others. But what, really, do those numbers mean, and how accurate are they?

You can think of Users, Sessions, and Pageviews as nested elements of each other: Users have sessions, and each session has pageviews.

Chart showing a how pageviews are nested inside sessions and sessions inside users

Let’s take a look at a visit from an actual user—let’s call him Frank—and see how Google Analytics counts his interactions with your site. Frank has never been to your site before, but yesterday looked at your homepage, then clicked a link in your navigation menu to go Page 2, clicked another link to go to a Page 3, then went back to Page 2.

Frank goes from Home to Page 2 to Page 3 and then back to Page 2

We can visualize Frank’s trip through your site like this:

Translating this visit to your site into Google Analytics numbers, this is what Frank added to your reports:

  • One user (Frank himself)
  • one session
  • four pageviews (three unique pageviews)

Google Analytics counts each user and session by using cookies—small bits of text that browsers write onto a computer’s hard drive that record information about any past activity on a site.


Frank has never visited your website before. So when Frank’s browser loads the first page of your site, the Google Analytics javascript looks to see if the browser already has a User cookie from a previous visit. If there is no user cookie, the browser creates one, assigning a unique number, or Client ID, to this user, that looks something like this: 1748447953.1518541752.

This cookie will expire after two years of inactivity. If Frank visits your site once again, more than two years after his first visit, he’ll be counted as a new user. But if he visits even once before two years have elapsed, Google Analytics will see the preexisting user cookie, count him as a returning user, and add another two years to the user cookie’s expiration date.


When Frank loads the first page of your site, the Google Analytics javascript will also look for a session cookie. Just as user cookies group different visits together, session cookies group together visits to individual pages. By default, session cookies expire after 30 minutes of inactivity on your site, or at midnight. (You can adjust the session length in your Google Analytics admin, if you want, but most people just leave it at 30 minutes.)

So let’s say Frank goes to your site, then goes to get lunch but leaves his browser open at your homepage, and doesn’t come back for another 35 minutes. When he gets back and clicks to visit another page on your site, it will be counted as the beginning of a new session, because the first one will have expired.

Conversely, if Frank gets really absorbed in your site and spends three hours clicking from page to page, all of that activity will be recorded as part of a single session. Unless Frank’s marathon visit extends past midnight, in which case the session cookie will expire and a new one will be created. The session cookie will also expire if Frank spends more than 30 minutes looking at a single page, without clicking to visit a new page. The session cookie is only renewed when new data is sent to Google Analytics, and usually that’s only when a new page is loaded.

Google has a more detailed explanation of how sessions are counted, if you’re interested.

Pageviews and Unique Pageviews

A new pageview is recorded whenever a page with the Google Analytics javascript loads in the browser. This includes when the current page is reloaded, or refreshed. Let’s say Frank visits your homepage, then refreshes the page six times to see all of the randomly-loaded background images, or something. Google Analytics will count that as eight pageviews, even though Frank is just looking at the same page over and over again.

Unique pageviews are way to get around this double-counting. A unique pageview counts pages viewed at least once during a session. So, Frank’s refreshing the page over and over again will create eight pageviews, but just one unique pageview.

How accurate are these numbers?

In short, not very accurate, but probably good enough as estimates of your actual users’ activities and how they are changing over time. Relying on cookies to track users and sessions has some serious flaws.

First of all, cookies are browser and device specific. If Frank visits your site on his laptop computer, then on his phone, and then later on his work computer, he’s counted as three users. Similarly, if he uses different browsers on the same machine, he’s counted as a different user for each. Use of multiple devices and multiple browsers like this can systemically inflate your user and session counts.

Some users may routinely erase their browser’s cookies as well, which will also inflate your user and session counts. If Frank clears his browser’s cookies, the next time he visits your site he will be counted as a new user with a new session. No one knows exactly how many people routinely delete their cookies, and how often they do so. But the usually-cited figure, based on a study by Comscore in 2006, is that “3 in every 10 Internet users delete their cookies in a month.”

Some unknown number of users employ ad-blockers or disable javascript in their browsers, which can mean that their visits to your site aren’t captured at all by your analytics.

All these sources of inaccuracy (and there are more, too) don’t mean, however, that your Google Analytics numbers are meaningless. The count of users and sessions from your analytics dashboard almost definitely does not equal the number of actual people who are using your site, and the number of times they visit. But if you consider that the sources of inaccuracy are largely constant from site to site, and from month to month, then your analytics numbers are a roughly accurate gauge of your site’s performance relative to other sites and time periods. So they are still useful for comparing one site to another, and one month or year to another.

Website Creation & Hosting

Some of Our Clients

The State Library’s Website Creation & Hosting service provides websites for a number of library organizations, including the sites shown below. Many Colorado Libraries also use our services. To see a list of our library sites, visit Meet the COLibraries Community.

Colorado ILL Conference

Library Learning & Creation Center

Colorado Chicano Movement History Portal

StoryBlocks: Songs & Rhymes that Build Readers

Common Cents for Colorado

One Book 4 Colorado

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Meet the COLibraries Community

Take a peak at some of our COLibraries clients!

Website Creation & Hosting

CVL Sites Redesigned

The State Library’s CVL Sites is a free service that creates and hosts websites for libraries, museums, and related organizations. Sites for Voice Preserve, One Book 4 Colorado, and StoryBlocks were recently redesigned to be easier to use on desktops, tablets, and mobile devices. Check out the new designs below.

To learn more about the CVL Sites program, see the CVL Sites website, or contact us to inquire about the State Library’s website creation and hosting programs. homepage

Colorado Libraries for Early Literacy’s

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COLibraries Levels of Service

The State Library works with COLibraries clients to determine which level best fits your needs. The decision for which level your needs will be based on the tech skills at your institution, website needs, and resources available.

Website Creation & Hosting

COLibraries Integrations and Plugins

New Titles Display for PIKA Libraries

If you are an AspenCat member, COLibraries offers special integration for PIKA featuring book cover streams based on your library’s newest tiles, children’s materials or any other designated collection.

Return-On-Investment Calculator

COLibraries also offers a special plugin to COLibraries users as well as any library using WordPress. The Return On Investment calculator, similar to the one below from Library Research Service, uses your local income per capita to show patrons the value they receive for every dollar the library uses.

Website Creation & Hosting

Website Creation & Hosting Inquiry

Use this form to contact us with questions about our website creation and hosting services. Or, you can email Babi Hammond or Kieran Hixon directly.

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COLibraries Samples and Template Pages

COLibraries can help you with templates for content (and some content you can use!) Using RSS feeds (and columns) can give your institution up-to-date information customized for your community.

Kids Page – This page highlights a multi-column option and the importing and displaying content from any RSS feed. Content can include your own blog, or links from popular social bookmarking sites. Many RSS feeds can be used on each page.

Job Resources – This page demonstrates the RSS feed plugin along with the column capability of this theme to produce pages that combine your own local information with other online resources.

Info for your Institution – Looking for a way to display information for your staff and informational nuggets for continuing education? RSS feeds and your own posts to staff may be the answer!

Library Return on Investment Calculator – Try the Library Return on Investment Calculator and find out how much money the library is saving you. How Much Does the Library Save You?

Check out some of our template pages of curated resources!

Early Literacy
Ebooks & Audiobooks
Homework Help

If you are an AspenCat member, check out how we can display your book lists!

AspenCat Integration

Search Example

Catalog Website Google